One of the most successful and prolific artists working with digital technologies, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer has gained widespread recognition in the international contemporary art scene. He is known for his large scale interactive installations in public spaces, as well as other artworks in which the public becomes the piece.

 

Website of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer:
lozano-hemmer.com

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, "Bifurcation", 2012. Photo by: Antimodular Research
Shadow Object (2012-today)

The installations in this series escape bi-dimensional representation by integrating a physical object, suspended in front of a projection. The position and rotation of the object modifies the contents of the projected image, suggesting a reflection on the concepts of presence, absence, perspective, and perception.

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, "Third Person, Shadow Box 2", 2006.  Photo by: Antimodular Research
Shadow Box (2006-today)

A series of ten projects consisting on interactive displays with a built-in computerized tracking system that confronts viewers with their own images, rendered as a mosaic of live and recorded videos, words, and other visual forms. With their mirror-like interaction, the works in this series have influenced similar interactive displays by other artists.

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, "Sphere Packing, Subsculpture 15", 2013. Photo by: Antimodular Research.
Subsculpture (2004-2014)

The installations in this series consist mainly of animated objects that display a particular behavior in response to the presence of the public or a set of pre-programmed instructions. These artworks subvert the notion of the sculpture as a static object and the perception of digital art as immaterial.

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, "Voice Tunnel, Relational Architecture 21", 2013. Commissioned by: Park Avenue Tunnel, NYC DOT "Summer Streets". New York City, New York, United States. Photo by: James Ewing.
Relational Architecture (1997-present)

Developed since 1997, this is Lozano-Hemmer’s most long-lived and prolific series, and also the body of work for which he is most known. Consisting mainly of large scale interactive installations, this series explores the relationship between the viewer and her immediate environment, usually the architectural space in capital cities, addressing issues of scale, power, presence, identity, and social interactions.

Metaphors of participation
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer interviewed by Heimo Ranzenbacher for the Ars Electronica 2001 catalog (excerpts)

 

What significance does the recourse of the arts to natural science and technology have for you as an artist?

Like most people, I like living vicariously through technology. I am seduced by amplification, simulation, telematics and things that crash. I work with technology because it is impossible not to. Technology is one of the inevitable languages of globalisation. I like calling it a language because this conveys two attributes that are significant. Firstly, that technology is inseparable from contemporary identity, —there is no such thing as “what we were like before technology”—, and secondly that it is not something that has been invented or engineered, but rather that it has evolved through constantly-changing social, economic, physical and political forces. I think artists use technology explicitly as a way to understand and criticise from within some of the paradoxes of our culture. How can “media” culture actually result in disintermediation? How can a condition of placelessness become situated as multi-place? How come telematics may actually remarginalize the periphery?

On the other hand, there is a tendency for “technologically correct” art, like critic Lorne Falk says, where artists, museums and galleries adopt technology not to create new experiences specific to the new media, but rather to leverage and validate their current grab-bag of metaculture. It is interesting that the successive waves of techno-hype for multimedia, VR, the internet, and now ubiquitous computing have been typically reported by using cliché references to the Renaissance as though we were about to enter a new humanism where the user is the “centre of the digital world”. The human today is at the centre of nothing but a flock or stampede. If we could zoom out of our scene we would probably see ourselves following relatively established patterns and group behaviours, like partaking in consumer culture, which are unavoidable. This humanist approach, where art and science may pretend to be one and thesame thing, is nostalgia at best and necrophilia at worst. I find it significant that the first realistic computer models of humans (synthespians) were done at the same time that flocking behaviours (particle systems) were being implemented in high-end animation packages. Many years ago I wrote an essay for Leonardo magazine called “Perverting Technological Correctness” where I outlined some strategies artists deploy to corrupt the inevitability of corporate technologies. Among them, I included the simulation of technology itself, the use of pain, ephemeral intervention, misuse of technology, non-digital approaches to virtuality and resistance to what I call the “effect” effect.


How do you see the position of the artist (in general) within this field of tension and interplay?—What about your own particular position?

I think all art, technological or not, defines an “intersubjectively binding reference system”. In my opinion, all good art questions any “autonomy” that thisreference system may lay claim to. Autonomous from what? Duchamp nailed the impossibility of autonomy in art with his maxim “Le regard fait le tableau” (the look makes the painting). Everything is dependent on relationships, some of these relationships are established in an ad hoc way and others are carefully choreographed. Personally I am very motivated by the tensions and interplay arising from linking alien memories, that is, connecting intensely disparate planes of experience. I think this can be done with or without explicit technological dependence.


The name Rafael Lozano-Hemmer is connected with, among other things, the “Relational Architecture” series, projects in which the public is involved to an increasing extent. What is the significance for you and your work of seeing that realization of these projects is dependent upon the readiness of others to participate? Are there strategies to increase the readiness of others to participate?

Dependency onparticipation is a humbling affair. My pieces do not exist unless someone dedicates some time to them. Most people, with the exception of children, will opt to not participate in an installation in public space, —which may seem strange considering that welive in the age of reality TV and the society of the spectacle. This is due in part to shyness and living in a culture of rules like “do not touch”, but I like to think that there are two other reasons. One is political: people are sceptical about the neutrality of public space. No one wants to go along with a culture of surveillance, even if they know that it is inevitable. The other is aesthetic: some people prefer the chaotic sights and sounds of an urban landscape, or silence, rather than some canned multimedia intervention that forces you to focus on one event, usually to sell you something.

For me dependency on participation is a way to “ground” an installation and this helps me conceive interfaces and strategies that demystify the spectacular. The key is to develop pieces that offer some degree of intimacy within an intimidating scale. Also to find participation metaphors that are relatively familiar or self-explaining. Finally to offer a wide range of entry points into the work, attempting to underline the incompleteness, uselessness and indeterminacy of the initiative.

When we look at projects that offer collective participation there are usually two strategies, which I call “taking turns” or “taking averages”. Taking turns is the most common, and in it interaction is restricted to one or two people who have the control of the installation while others are passive. Displaced Emperors was like that, as only one person could hold the tracking system. Taking averages is the strategy used in game shows,rides or several variants of interactive cinema, where there are sensors whose signals are averaged and then statistically directed at a few possible courses of action. I find this latter strategy extremely frustrating and democratic, it does not allow for eccentric or perverse readings of the artwork, which should be fostered and not hindered in my opinion.

For my latest piece “Body Movies” in Rotterdam (which takes place at the same time as the Ars Electronica Festival), we will use a collective interface strategy that is neither of the above. We will project the shadows of passers-by and a single camera tracker will detect these. We can have as many people as fit in the public square interacting simultaneously without the need for any interface device. Everyone already has a sophisticated vocabulary of interaction with their shadow, so no explanation of the media is necessary. There will be collective behaviours emerging from the group of shadows, —in particular, the self-organisation of scale according to social constraints—, but also each person will have a discrete and direct participation as their shadow is recognisably theirs.


In your work, the mode of cooperation determines not only how it is implemented but also how it develops—there are always different individuals, artists, technicians and programmers involved.—What consequences does this mode of cooperation have for the conception of projects?

My pieces are always collaborations, usually with my long-standing collaborator Will Bauer, with whom I have done pieces since 1989. Depending on the type of
project I have also worked with programmers, writers, photographers, choreographers, architects, composers and so on. Sometimes a project may involve up to a couple dozen people. Even when I am working on a project alone I still feel it is a collaboration because I am always aware that tools that I use are already encoded with the “personality” of its programmer/designer. Creation is always a fluid dialog. The mode of cooperative conception that works for us is one derived from the performing arts: there is a director, actors, composers, and so on.


How important to you is the political aspect of your creative work?

Everything that takes place in public space has political dimensions. My biases are usually manifested through certain choices, but in general I believe that one of the roles of the artist is not so much to provide moralistic commentary but rather to create spaces for participation, where a plurality of positions may emerge. Participation itself is a strong political element, particularly as the public sphere loses its claim to “represent” the people that may occupy it. Participation transforms “special-effects” into “special-causes-and-effects” which is more interesting from a political point of view.

I have a lot of respect and admiration for the work of Krzysztof Wodiczko, Hans Haacke and other artists who have deployed deeply creative strategies to reveal and debunk the power narratives of certain public settings. At the sametime, I want to establish my practice far away from deconstructive techniques utilised in such “site-specific” works. I like to call my work “relationship-specific” in the sense that the emphasis is not on the essential or even “important” characteristicsof a site, or on the narratives that power elites may bestow on them, but rather on the micro-politics of new temporary relationships that may arise from alien interventions.

Mexico City (Mexico), 1967

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer emigrated to Canada in 1985 to study at the University of Victoria in British Columbia. He transferred to Concordia University in Montreal, where in 1989 he obtained a Bachelor of Science in Physical Chemistry, also studying art history. He worked in a molecular recognition lab and published his research in Chemistry journals, but soon chose to follow a different professional path. In Montreal, he connected with the visual arts scene, which inspired him to become an artist and create his first sound pieces for radio and multimedia performances. The son of nightclub owners, he has been familiarized since his early youth with environments where electronics, light, and music had a predominant role, and in fact both light and sound, as well as theatrical setups, are integral elements in his work. While he did not pursue his career in Chemistry, he has integrated his love for science in his artistic practice and continues to follow current theories and debates, which sometimes inspire the content of his art installations. In fact, the artist has described his work in terms of a chemistry experiment: “a lot of what I’m doing now is about mixing things up and watching the reaction take place.”

Said “reaction” takes place when the public encounters Lozano-Hemmer’s interactive installations, which require the viewer’s active participation to come into being. In the early 1990s, the artist created his first installations using surveillance technology, placing the audience under the gaze of the artwork and interacting with it from the very moment they set foot in the room. Surface Tension (1992) exemplifies this relationship between artwork and viewer by displaying a video image of a giant human eye that follows the visitor as she walks in front of it. In most of Lozano-Hemmer’s work the interaction is intuitive, only requiring the viewer to be present in a room or in front of a screen or projection, sometimes activating a sensor by placing her hands or a finger on a specific device. This leads to an engaging experience in which the viewer activates or takes control of the artwork, often leaving her trace in it, but it also awakens the uncomfortable feeling of being watched and categorized, as in Standards and Double Standards (2004), Subtitled Public (2005), or Zoom Pavillion (2015). Besides capturing the presence and movements of the audience, a series of works collects more intimate data: a person’s heartbeat. The pulses of participants feed archives that accumulate information on thousands of people, represented by the flashing of a light bulb or undulations on the surface of water in Pulse Spiral (2008) and Pulse Tank (2008), while the heartbeats of passersby transform the urban landscape in installations that produce light sculptures of enormous dimensions, such as Pulse Front (2007) and Pulse Park (2008).

Large-scale installations are commonly associated with Lozano-Hemmer’s work, although it addresses all dimensions, from the microscopic, in Pinches Pelos (2009), to the cosmic, in Solar Equation (2010) and Blue Sun (2018), among others. The series Relational Architecture, staged in urban spaces, play with the concept of scale by connecting the actions of individuals with spectacular light compositions carried out by robotic searchlights in the night sky, in Vectorial Elevation (1999), Amodal Suspension (2003), and Border Tuner (2019), among others; or images and shadows projected on buildings, in Re:Positioning Fear (1997), Body Movies (2001), and Airborne Projection (2013). These installations create a dialogical relationship with the architectural space and among the participants themselves. Paradoxically, these visually massive installations are mainly created with light, which is an essential element in the artist’s work. Light allows him to intervene on the façades of buildings, or the bodies of viewers and passersby, and makes processes visible, as in 1000 Platitudes (2003), Voice Array (2011), or Autopoiesis (2010), among others. Darkness and shadow define silent spaces, interruptions, and the presence of a spectator whose silhouette is projected onto the illuminated space, revealing contents hidden by the light.

In contrast with his massive installations in public spaces, some of Lozano-Hemmer’s artworks adopt more intimate dimensions and confront the viewer with her own reflection. In the series Shadow Box, the artwork comprises a screen, a camera and a software that captures the image of the person in front of it and translates it into an assortment of words, color samples or video fragments, as in Make Out (2007), The Company of Colours (2009), or 1984×1984 (2014), among others. The participant may sometimes leave a more permanent trace, through an archive of interactions embedded in the artwork, as in Pulse room (2006), Please Empty Your Pockets (2010), or Bilateral Time Slicer (2016). Memory plays a particular role in this work, as it does in others which address historical events, particularly those that have been ignored or censured, such as Displaced Emperors (1997), Voz Alta (2008), or Level of Confidence (2015), and others with more poetic undertones such as Atmospheric Memory (2019), an immersive installation inspired by Charles Babbage’s idea that the air may hold every word ever spoken. It can be said that Lozano-Hemmer’s artworks seek to give a voice to the public, at times literally, with some artworks being activated by the voices of those of interact with them, as in Microphones (2008) and Voice Tunnel (2013), among others. Conversely, some artworks demand the viewers to become listeners, as they focus on sound as their key element, albeit in sculptural forms and immersive environments, such as Sphere Packing (2013) and Sphere Packing: Bach (2018). The artist’s work continues to develop in many directions, but is consistently structured along the previously described vectors. Recently, he has created A Crack in the Hourglass (2020), a participatory generative piece conceived as a memorial for the victims of COVID-19.

Lozano-Hemmer was the first artist to represent Mexico at the Venice Biennale with an exhibition at Palazzo Van Axel in 2007. He has also shown at Biennials in Cuenca, Havana, Istanbul, Kochi, Liverpool, Melbourne NGV, Moscow, New Orleans, New York ICP, Seoul, Seville, Shanghai, Singapore, Sydney, and Wuzhen. His public art has been commissioned for the Millennium Celebrations in Mexico City (1999), the Expansion of the European Union in Dublin (2004), the Student Massacre Memorial in Tlatelolco (2008), the Vancouver Olympics (2010), the pre-opening exhibition of the Guggenheim in Abu Dhabi (2015), and the activation of the Raurica Roman Theatre in Basel (2018). Collections holding his work include MoMA and Guggenheim in New York, TATE in London, MAC and MBAM in Montreal, Jumex, and MUAC in Mexico City, DAROS in Zurich, MONA in Hobart, 21C Museum in Kanazawa, Borusan Contemporary in Istanbul, CIFO in Miami, MAG in Manchester, SFMOMA in San Francisco, ZKM in Karlsruhe, SAM in Singapore and many others. He has been the subject of three dozen solo exhibitions worldwide, including a major show at the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington DC, the inaugural show at the AmorePacific Museum in Seoul, and a mid-career retrospective co-produced by the Musée d’Art Contemporain de Montréal and SFMOMA.

Publications

Monographs

2018
Kyoungran Kim, Mirim Lee (eds.). Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Decision Forest. Amorepacific Museum of Art.

2015
Ekaterina Álvarez Romero (ed.). Recorders. Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Pseudomatismos/Pseudomatisms. Mexico: MUAC – Museo Universitario Arte Contemporaneo.

2014
Kathleen Forde, John G. Hanhardt and Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Vicious Circular Breathing. Instanbul: Borusan Contemporary

2012
Rodrigo Alonso and Luis Blasco Bosqued. Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Detectores. Buenos Aires: Fundación Telefónica

2008
John Hanhardt. Mad. Sq. Art 2008 – Rafael Lozano-Hemmer – Pulse Park. New York: Madison Square Park Conservancy

2007
José Luis Barríos, Manuel Delanda, Barbara London, Príamo Lozada, Cuauhtémoc Medina, Bárbara Peréa and Victor Stoichita. Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Some Things Happen More Often Than All of the Time. Catalogue for the Mexican Pavilion. La Biennale di Venezia. Madrid: Turner.

Moira Stevenson, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Timothy Druckrey, Cecilia Fajardo-Hill, Beryl Graham and Jacinta Laurent. Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Recorders. Catalogue of Recorders exhibition which took place in Manchester Art Gallery.

2006
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer and David Hill (eds.). Under Scan. EMDA and Antimodular.

2005
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer and José Luis Barrios. Rafael Lozano-Hemmer “Subsculptures”. Galerie Guy Bärtschi.

2000
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer (ed.). Vectorial Elevation: Relational Architecture No. 4.

 

Books

“Rafael Lozano-Hemmer – Level of Confidence”, ISMAR 2015, Fukuoka, Japan, September 30th 2015 (english). Text of 4 pages.
“Digital Latin America”, 516 Arts exhibition catalogue 2014, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, 2014 (english and español). Text of 3 pages.
“Permission To Be Global: Latin American Art from the Ella Fontanals-Cisneros Collection”, Cisneros Fontanals Art Foundation, Miami, Florida, United States, 2013 (english). Text of 1 page.
The Red Queen, Museum of Old and New Art, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 2013 (english). Text of 3 pages.
“Conversations”, Copenhagen Art Festival 2012 exhibition catalogue, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012 (english and dansk). Text of 1 page.
“Play with me”, Museum of Latin American Art, Long Beach, California, United States, 2012 (english and español). Text of 3 pages.
“Son et Lumière: Material, Transition, Time and Wisdom”, 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art, Kanazawa, Japan, 2012 (english and japanese). Text of 1 page.
“Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Atopia, Barcelona, Spain, 2010 (english). Text of 1 page.
“1000 Platitudes”, Language in art, Netherlands, 2009 (english). Text of 1 page.
“Blow-up, shadow box #4” and “Reporters with borders, shadow box #6”, Turn and Widen, Seoul, South Korea, 2008 (english). Text of 1 page.
“Máquinas y Almas: arte digital y nuevos medios”, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain, 2008 (español). Text of 3 pages.
“Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, The Prisoner’s Dilemma, selections from Ella Fontanals-Cisneros Collection, Miami, Florida, United States, 2008 (english). Text of 1 page.
“Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Emergentes, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2008 (english and español). Text of 2 pages.
MAD. SQ. ART 2008: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer – Pulse Park, Madison Square Park Conservancy, New York City, New York, United States, 2008 (english). Text of 21 pages.
Annual Review 2006: Sixty Years Celebrating the Arts, Arts Council England, United Kingdom, 2006 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Microwave International New Media Arts Festival exhibition catalogue, Microwave International New Media Arts Festival, Hong Kong, China, 2006 (english and chinese). Text of 11 pages.
“Navigator: Digital Art in the Making”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan, 2004 (english and chinese). Text of 2 pages.
“Critical Conditions”, Wood Street Galleries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 2003 (english). Text of 23 pages.
“Fragilités – Printemps de Septembre”, Association le Printemps de Septembre 2002, Toulouse, France, 2002 (english and français). Text of 7 pages.
“Moi et ma circonstance”, Musée des Beaux Arts de Montéal, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 1999 (english and français). Text of 9 pages.
“El Rastro: Presencia remota insinuada / The Trace: Remote Insinuated Presence”, Recinto Ferial Juan Carlos I, Madrid, Spain, 1995 (english and español). Text of 30 pages.
4 Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art, 4 Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art: Rewriting Worlds, exhibition cagalogue, Institute of Contemporary Art Moscow, Moscow, Moscow, Russia, 2011 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Adriaansens, A. and Brouwer, J., Alien Relationships from Public Space, TransUrbanism, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2002 (english). Text of 7 pages.
Adriaansens, Alex and Brower, Joke, Transurbanism, NAI V2 publishers, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2002 (english). Text of 8 pages.
Alonso, Rodrigo, “Desnudos frente al horno de microondas”, “Naked in front of the Microwave Oven”, Espacio Fundación Telefónica, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 2013 (english and español). Text of 12 pages.
Alsina, Pau, et al., Extimitat, exhibition catalogue, Museu d’ Art Modern I Contemporani de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 2011 (catalan). Text of 6 pages.
Aros, “Pulse room: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Enter action: digital art now, Aarhus, Denmark, 2009 (english and dansk). Text of 4 pages.
Avilés Cavasola, Juncia, “El 68: Todo el día y toda la noche”, UNAM, Mexico City, México, 2010 (español). Text of 1 page.
Avilés Cavasola, Juncia Ed., “Voz alta: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, UNAM, Mexico City, México, 2010 (español). Text of 5 pages.
Barrios, José Luis, “Subsculptures”, Gallery Guy Bärtschi, Genève, Switzerland, 2005 (english). Text of 11 pages.
Barrios, José Luis, arte/FACTOS, Salón De Arte Bancomer – armas y herramientas, Mexico City, México, 2004 (español).
Barrios, José Luis and Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, “A conversation between José Luis Barrios and Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Genève, Switzerland, 2005 (english and français). Text of 23 pages.
Barro, David, “Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Emergentes, Gijón, Spain, 2008 (english and español). Text of 3 pages.
Bates, Chris, Megan Booth, Sean O’Keeffe., Making Art Connections, McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd, North Ryde, Australia, 2011 (english). Text of 1 page.
Benedetti, Lorenzo, La ciudad como interfaz del arte, La ciudad radiante, Valencia, Spain, 2003 (español). Text of 1 page.
Benedetti, Lorenzo, The City as Interface of Art, La ciudad radiante, Valencia, Spain, 2003 (english). Text of 1 page.
Benítez, Mónica, Gemma Argüello, “Los creadores de voces – Entrevista a Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Ediciones Gernika, Mexico City, México, January 1st 2014 (english). Text of 16 pages.
Berg, Eddie and McGonigal, Jo, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, International 2002 ‒ Liverpool Biennial, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 2002 (english). Text of 1 page.
Binder, Pat and Haupt, Gerhard, Excerpt from an interview for Universe, SCRABBLE ‒ vídeo, lenguaje y abstracción, Gran Canaria, Spain, 2005 (english and español). Text of 8 pages.
Borusan Contemporary, Borusan Contemporary Art Collection, Ertug & Kocabiyik, Istanbul, Turkey, 2013 (english). Text of 5 pages.
Bosco, Roberta, and Stefano Caldana, “Digital Pulses” Sense and Sustainability, Editorial Hariadna, S. L., Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain, 2012 (english, español, français and euskara). Text of 18 pages.
Brizzi, Marco and Giaconia, Paola, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Beyond Media ‒ 6º Festival Internazionale di Architettura in Video, Bologna, Italy, 2002 (english and italiano). Text of 1 page.
Broeckmann, Andreas, Public Spheres and Network Interfaces, The Cybercities reader, New York City, New York, United States, 2004 (english and italiano). Text of 4 pages.
Broeckmann, Andreas, “Vectorial Elevation: Public Spheres and Network Interfaces”, Conaculta, México, 2000 (english). Text of 6 pages.
Brunner, Christoph and Jonas Fritsch, “Beyond the network: experiential fields and urban media ecologies”, Mediacities, Buffalo, New York, United States, 2013 (english). Text of 13 pages.
Bullivant, Lucy, Responsive Environments ‒ Architecture, Art and Design, V&A Contemporary, London, United Kingdom, 2006 (english and italiano). Text of 5 pages.
Cámara, Ery (translated by D.E. Cowan), Mexican Artists in the International Arena, EXIT ‒ México, Spain, 2005 (english and español). Text of 3 pages.
Canogar, Daniel, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer ‒ Homographies, 2006 Biennale of Sydney — Zones of Contact, Seoul, South Korea, 2006 (english).
Canogar, Daniel, “Vectorial Elevation: Spectral Architectures”, Conaculta, México, 2000 (english and español). Text of 21 pages.
Cantz, Hatje, “Body Movies – Relationnal Architecture No. 6”, CyberArts 2002, Germany, 2002 (english and deutsch). Text of 2 pages.
Cecchetto, David, “Humanesis: Sound and Technological Posthumanism”, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 2013 (english). Text of 20 pages.
Cilleruelo, Lourdes, Medios Alienígenas – entrevista a Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Net.Art ‒ Prácticas estéticas y políticas en la red, Madrid, Spain, 2006 (español). Text of 8 pages.
Colección FEMSA, Colección FEMSA, Latinoamericano: Arte Moderno y Contemporáneo, Grupo Romo,, Mexico City, México, 2008 (español). Text of 2 pages.
de Kerckhove, Derrick, The Architecture of Intelligence, Birkhäuser, Basel, Switzerland, 2001 (english and español). Text of 1 page.
de Saint-Etienne, Michel, 8 décembre ‒ fête des lumières 2001-2005, Lyon, France, 2006 (français). Text of 1 page.
DeLanda, Manuel, “Some things happen more often than all of the time: La Expresividad del Espacio”, Turner, México, 2007 (español). Text of 5 pages.
DeLanda, Manuel, “Some things happen more often than all of the time: The Expressivity of Space”, Turner, México, 2007 (english). Text of 4 pages.
Dewdney, Andrew and Ride, Peter, Vectorial Elevation ‒ public arts project: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, The New Media Handbook, New York City, New York, United States, 2006 (english). Text of 8 pages.
Druckrey, Timothy, “Bodies, voices, pulses, traces, profanations…”, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Recorders, exhibition catalogue, Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2010 (english). Text of 7 pages.
Druckrey, Timothy, “Recorders: Relational Architecture”, Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2010 (english). Text of 1 page.
Druckrey, Timothy, Echte Telepräsenz… ‒ Real Telepresence…, Dot.City, Berlin, Germany, 2004 (english and deutsch).
Druckrey, Timothy, Critical Conditions, Wood Street Galleries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 2003 (english). Text of 1 page.
Druckrey, Timothy, Relational Architecture: the work of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Debates & Credits. Media / Art / Public Domain, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2003 (english and deutsch). Text of 4 pages.
edited by Ulrik Ekman, “Throughout: Art and culture Emerging with Ubiquitous Computing”, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, 2013 (english). Text of 10 pages.
Ehrlich, Ken and Labelle, Brandon, Body Movies, Surface Tension ‒ Problematics of Site, New York City, New York, United States, 2003 (english and deutsch). Text of 1 page.
Fajardo-Hill, Cecilia, “Play-Back”, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Recorders, exhibition catalogue, Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2010 (english). Text of 7 pages.
Fajardo-Hill, Cecilia, Forms of classification: Alternative Knowledge and contemporary art, Miami, Florida, United States, 2006 (english and español). Text of 3 pages.
Feireiss, Lukas and Suater, Joachim, A Touch of Code: Interactive Installations and Experiences, Gestalten, Berlin, Germany, 2011 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Fernández, María, “Transnational culture at the End of the Millennium.”, Cosmopolitanism in Mexican Visual Culture, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, United States, 2014 (english). Text of 28 pages.
Fernández, María, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, egofugal – 7th international Istanbul biennial, Istanbul, Turkey, 2001 (english and türkçe). Text of 2 pages.
Flores, Tatiana, Mexico’s Revolutionary Avant-Gardes: From Estridentismo to ¡30-30!, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, United Kingdom, 2013 (english). Text of 7 pages.
Fortin, Sylvie, “Artists Reclaim the Commons: New Works / New Territories / New Publics”, ISC Press, Hamilton, New Jersey, United States, 2013 (english). Text of 10 pages.
Fraser, Marie, “Performer le temps, performer l’espace”, La Triennale Québécoise 2011: Le Travail Qui Nous Attend, exhibition catalogue, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2012 (français). Text of 8 pages.
Fraser, Marie, “Performing time, performing space”, La Triennale Québécoise 2011: Le Travail Qui Nous Attend, exhibition catalogue, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2012 (english). Text of 8 pages.
Freedom to Create Prize 2010, Freedom to Create Prize ‒ Voices of Courage 2010, Freedom to Create Prize 2010, Cairo, Egypt, 2010 (english). Text of 1 page.
Freyer, Conny, Noel, Sebastien and Rucki, Eva, “Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Digital by design, London, United Kingdom, 2008 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Frieling, Rudolf, “Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, The art of participation: 1950 to now, New York City, New York, United States, 2008 (english). Text of 1 page.
Graham, Beryl, “Delicate Controls”, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Recorders exhibition catalogue, Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2010 (english). Text of 6 pages.
Graham, Beryl, “Interaction/Participation: Disembodied Performance in New Media Art”, Dead History, Live Art?, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 2007 (english). Text of 3 pages.
Graham, Beryl, Digital Media, Directions in Art series, Oxford, Mississippi, United States, 2003 (english). Text of 4 pages.
Graham, Beryl, “Amplification” Singapore Biennale 2011, exhibition catalogue, Singapore Art Museum, Singapore, Singapore, (english). Text of 5 pages.
Hanhardt, John G., “Vibrant Matter: The Art of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer” in Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Vicious Circular Breathing. Exhibition catalogue., Borusan Contemporary, Istanbul, Turkey, 2013 (english and türkçe). Text of 10 pages.
Hasegawa, Yuko, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Cream 3. Contemporary Art in Culture. 10 curators -10 contemporary artists – 10 source artists, London, United Kingdom, 2003 (english). Text of 4 pages.
Helguera, Pablo, “The Museum as Medium Symposium”, Guggenheim Museum, New York City, New York, United States, 2002 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Herrera Ysla, Nelson, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Séptima Bienal de La Habana, Madrid, Spain, 2000 (english and español). Text of 1 page.
IKF Latin American Art Auction 2007, IKF Latin American Art Auction 2007, auction catalogue, Cisneros Fontanals Art Foundation, Miami, Florida, United States, 2007 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Johung, Jennifer, Network dependencies: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s Relational Architecture, Replacing Home, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 2012 (english). Text of 34 pages.
Kacunko, Slavko, Closed Circuit Videoinstallationen, Logos, Berlin, Germany, 2004 (deutsch). Text of 2 pages.
Kathleen Forde and Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, RLH [ ] Kathleen Forde ve Rafael Lozano-Hemmer söleşisi-Kathleen Forde and Rafael Lozano-Hemmer in conversation., Borusan Contemporary, Istanbul, Turkey, September 2013 (english and türkçe). Text of 92 pages.
Kunsthal KAdE, Shadow Dance, exhibition catalogue, Kunsthal KAdE, Amersfoort, Netherlands, (english). Text of 1 page.
La Triennale Québécoise 201, “Rafael Lozano-Hemmer” La Triennale Québécoise 2011: Le Travail Qui Nous Attend. exhibition catalogue, Musée d’Art Contemporain de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2012 (english and français). Text of 4 pages.
Laurenson, Pip, “Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Interview by Pip Laurenson”, The fifth floor: Ideas taking space, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 2009 (english). Text of 3 pages.
Laurent, Jacinta, “Interview: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2011 (english). Text of 4 pages.
Le Tourneux, François, “Cold current”, La Triennale Québécoise 2011: Le Travail Qui Nous Attend, exhibition catalogue, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2012 (english). Text of 7 pages.
Le Tourneux, François, “Courant froid”, La Triennale Québécoise 2011: Le Travail Qui Nous Attend, exhibition catalogue, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2012 (français). Text of 8 pages.
LED, LED, Nikkei Business Publications, Japan, 2010 (japanese). Text of 1 page.
Lieser, Wolf, The World of Digital Art, Ullmann Publishing, Potsdam, Germany, 2010 (english). Text of 6 pages.
Lieser, Wolf, Digitale Medien-Installationen im Firmenumfeld, Digital Art, China, 2009 (deutsch). Text of 1 page.
Lopez, Sebastian, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Shangai Biennale ‒ Techniques of the Visible, Shanghai, China, 2004 (english and chinese). Text of 5 pages.
Lovejoy, Margot, Art as interactive communications: networking global culture, Digital currents: art in the electronic age, London, United Kingdom, 2004 (english). Text of 1 page.
Lovink, Geert, Real and Virtual Light of Relational Architecture – an interview with Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Uncanny Networks ‒ Dialogues with the Virtual Intelligentsia, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2002 (english). Text of 10 pages.
Lovink, Geert, “Vectorial Elevation: Interview with Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, Conaculta, México, 2000 (english). Text of 9 pages.
Lozada, Príamo, Dataspace: Del objeto observado al sujeto participante), Transitio_MX, Mexico City, México, 2005 (english). Text of 1 page.
Lozada, Príamo, Risk/Riesgo, The Standby Program Inc., New York City, New York, United States, 2003 (english and español). Text of 8 pages.
Lozada, Príamo, Dataspace Arte Electrónico, MÉXICO EN ARCO ’05, Madrid, Spain, (español). Text of 1 page.
Lozada, Priamo, and Bárbara Perea, “Rafael Lozano-Hemmer – ‘Some things happen more often than all the time'”, Kunstforum, Vol. 188, Cologne, Germany, October 2007 (deutsch). Text of 1 page.
Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, Under Scan, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 2007 (english).
Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, Idle Hands, European Media Art Festival, Madrid, Spain, 1995 (english). Text of 1 page.
Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, The Trace, Madrid, Spain, 1995 (english).
Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, Arte virtual y reactivo , Arte Virtual, Madrid, Spain, 1994 (español). Text of 3 pages.
Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, Surface Tension, Visual Proceedings ‒ The Art & Interdisciplinary Programs of SIGGRAPH 93, New York City, New York, United States, 1993 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, Cyborg Fictions, Virtual Seminar on the Bioapparatus, Banff: The Banff Centre for the Arts, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 1991 (english). Text of 1 page.
Macfarlane, David and Nigel Dickson, “Surprised by art”, McClelland & Stewart Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2011 (english). Text of 1 page.
Manovich, Lev, “The poetics of augmented space”, New Media Theories and Pratices of Digitextuality, New York City, New York, United States, 2003 (english). Text of 1 page.
Mariátegui, José-Carlos, Emergentes. 10 projects by Latin American artists / Works in progress, Laboral, 2007 (español). Text of 2 pages.
Massumi, Brian, “Master Class Huge and Mobile (HUMO)”, Making Art of Databases, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2003 (english). Text of 10 pages.
Massumi, Brian, Parables for the Virtual ‒ Movement, Affect, Sensation, Switzerland, 2002 (english). Text of 1 page.
Massumi, Brian. Edited by Michael Goddard, Benjamin Halligan and Paul Hegarty, “Floating the Social”, Reverberations: The Philosophy, Aesthetics and Politics of Noise, London, United Kingdom, 2012 (english). Text of 18 pages.
McQuire, Scott, Performing Public Space, The Media City: Media, Architecture and Urban Space, 2008, London, United Kingdom, 2008 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Medina, Pedro, “Migrations between Memory and Spectacle”, ARTECONTEXTO, Vol. 15, Madrid, Spain, 2007 (english). Text of 3 pages.
Moulon, Dominique, Art Contemporain Nouveaux Médias, Nouvelles Éditions Scala, Paris, France, 2011 (français). Text of 2 pages.
Mounajjed, Nadja, “Interview with Rafael Lozano-Hemmer”, East Midlands Development Agency, United Kingdom, 2005 (english). Text of 15 pages.
Mugnier, Patrice, Kuei Yu Ho, Homographies: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Design Interactif, Saint-Germain, France, 2012 (français). Text of 4 pages.
Musée National des Beaux-Arts du Québec, “Entrepôt de pulsations”, Intrus/Intruders, Québec, Québec, Canada, 2008 (français). Text of 7 pages.
Museum of Old and New Art, Monanisms, exhibition cagalogue, Museum of Old and New Art, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 2010 (english). Text of 8 pages.
Neumann, Dietrich, Architectural Illumination since World War II, Architecture of the Night, Munich, Germany, 2002 (english). Text of 1 page.
Ohlenschläger, Karin, The capable skin – La Piel Capaz, Arte Virtual – Realidad Plural, Monterrey, México, 1997 (english and español). Text of 3 pages.
Ordás, Carlos, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, MUSAC ‒ Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Castilla Y León, Barcelona, Spain, 2004 (english and español).
Ozog, Maciej, “Surveilling the surveillance society: the case of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s installations”, Conspiracy dwellings: Surveillance in Contemporary Art, Newcastle, United Kingdom, 2010 (english). Text of 7 pages.
Paul, Christiane, Digital Art, London, United Kingdom, 2003 (english). Text of 1 page.
Ranzenbacher, Heimo, Interview with Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Ars Electronica, Linz, Austria, 2001 (english). Text of 5 pages.
Ranzenbacher, Heimo, Metaphors of Participation, Takeover ‒ who’s doing the art of tomorrow. ARS Electronica 2001, Vienna, Austria, 2001 (english). Text of 5 pages.
Reas, Casey, Chandler Mc Williams and LUST, Form Code: In design, Art, and Architecture, Princeton Architectural Press, New York City, New York, United States, 2010 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Ricardo, Francisco J., “Performative engagement-Dance with projective images”, The Engagement Aesthetic, New York City, New York, United States, 2013 (english). Text of 4 pages.
Roca, José, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Phantasmagoria: Spectors of absence, New York City, New York, United States, 2007 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Ryan, Zoë, Temp Work, OPEN ‒ New Designs For Public Space, New York City, New York, United States, 2004 (english).
Sánchez Balmisa, Alberto, “Activando al Sujeto”, Al Calor del Pensamiento, Daros Latinamerica Collection, Madrid, Spain, 2010 (english). Text of 3 pages.
Sánchez Balmisa, Alberto, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, 100 Artistas Latinoamericanos ‒ Latin American Artists, Madrid, Spain, 2006 (english and español). Text of 3 pages.
Schwander, Martin, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Art | Unlimited, Basel, Switzerland, (english). Text of 1 page.
Smith, Terry, Contemporary Art World Currents, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, United States, 2011 (english). Text of 2 pages.
Soukup, Katharina, “Artists in Webby Wonderland”, ISEA newsletter, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2001 (english). Text of 5 pages.
Stern, Nathanie, Interactive art and embodiment: The implicit body as performance, Gylphi Limited, Canterburry, United Kingdom, 2013 (english). Text of 11 pages.
Stocker, Gerfried and Schöpf, Christine, Relational Architecture no2 – Displaced Emperors, Flesh Factor ‒ informationsmaschine mensch, Vienna, Austria, 1997 (english and deutsch). Text of 3 pages.
Stocker, Gerfried and Schöpf, Christine, Relational Architecture no2 – Displaced Emperors, Flesh Factor ‒ informationsmaschine mensch, Vienna, Austria, 1997 (english and deutsch). Text of 3 pages.
Stoichita, Victor, “Tecnología, magia y reencantamiento del mundo. / Technology, Magic and the Re-enchantment of the World”, Some things happen more often than all of the time exhibition catalogue, México, 2007 (english and español). Text of 10 pages.
Subasta Arte Vivo 2011, Subasta Arte Vivo 2011, auction catalogue, Fundación México Vivo, Mexico City, México, 2011 (español). Text of 1 page.
Sumitomo, Fumihiko, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Art meets Media: adventures in perception, Tokyo, Japan, 2005 (japanese).
Tribe, Mark. and Jana, Reena, Vectorial Elevation , New Media Art (Art des nouveaux médias), Köln, Germany, 2006 (english and français). Text of 3 pages.
VCUarts Anderson Gallery, Artificial Light: New Ligh-Based Sculpture and Installation Art, exhibition catalogue, VCUarts Anderson Gallery, Richmond, Virginia, United States, 2006 (english). Text of 3 pages.
Weibel, Peter and Gregor Jansen Editors, “Light Art from Artificial Light”, ZKM Publications, Ostfildern, Germany, 2006 (english and deutsch). Text of 1 page.
Welbel, Stanislaw, “No, no, I hardly ever miss a show”, Zacheta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw, Poland, 2011 (english and polski). Text of 3 pages.
Wilson, Stephen, “Art Science Now”, Thames & Hudson Inc., New York City, New York, United States, 2010 (english). Text of 4 pages.
Wilson, Stephen, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Information Arts ‒ Intersections of Art, Science, and Technology, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2002 (english). Text of 4 pages.

Trailer of the documentary film Megalodemocrat. The Public Art of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. Directed by Benjamin Duffield. Fierce Bad Rabbit Pictures, 2018.